The GEF Small Grant Programme

POPs Awareness Training Module

Read, learn and test your POPs knowledge

Chapter VI: Case Studies: Local Actions; Global Results

While the types of projects, outcomes, indicators outlined in Chapter 5 are by no means exhaustive, they provide guidance on how local projects can achieve the goals of the Stockholm Convention and the GEF, thereby achieving global results.

Since 2002, SGP has funded more than 160 POPs projects, and gained considerable experience in the areas of waste Management, pesticide Management, sustainable agriculture, awareness Raising and capacity Building in preventing, reducing and eliminating the uses of POPs. There are multiple examples of how communities and NGOs are doing this. The following small sampling of case studies provides examples of how local communities and NGOs have met with success:

WASTE MANAGEMENT

1. Waste Management to Alleviate the Need for Burning Plastics, Guantanamo, Cuba.

Figure 1.1.  Wastes were dumped and then burned, Guantanamo, Cuba
Figure 1.1. Wastes were dumped and then burned, Guantanamo, Cuba
El Centro Ecológico de Procesamiento de Residuos Urbanos (CEPRU) initiated this project in the Isleta Sur community in Guantanamo, Cuba to help reduce dioxins and furans from a nearby waste dump. The dump was receiving an average of 150 tons of solid waste daily which were burnt without any control and emissions impacting the local population. According to the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, the burning accounted for 6% of the dioxin and furan emissions into the atmosphere in the province. The Center initiated a process of separating wastes and giving them different economic uses, with the organic matter being turned into compost. CEPRU worked with roughly 40 members of the community (including nearly 20 women) to compost organic matter and also to reforest close to 3 hectares, creating green areas, gardens, and a playground, while involving the community at large. The practice virtually eliminated the generation of dioxins and furans, representing a decrease of the 6% of the emissions to the atmosphere and improving the quality of life for nearly 566 community members. The project won the nomination of UNDP Administrator Award for Innovation and Creativity in 2006. The success of the project continues to contribute to both global and national awareness-raising of POPs through UNDP development network, SGP partners’ network, and later the broadcasting by CNN.

Project Assessment:

Figure 1.2. Women working to recycle the waste
Figure 1.2. Women working to recycle the waste
CEPRU’s project success can be measured by the fact that it contributed to a substantial reduction in dioxins and furan emissions, but also because it effectively and creatively involved surrounding communities in waste separation, composting, reforestation and the creation of recreational green space. The project’s creativity and innovation resulted in it receiving the UNDP Administrator Award for Innovation and Creativity in 2006. Lessons learned are being shared across the SGP’s worldwide network. Due to its success, the project is now also being replicated in Jamaica.

This project successfully contributed to implementation of Stockholm Convention Article 5: measures to reduce releases from unintentional POPs. The project met the OP14 expected outcomes of: the strengthening of the institutional and human resource capacity for the management of POPs; safe and effective alternatives to POPs and environmentally safe management, storage and disposal of POPs along with additional outcomes indicators including: involvement of women, children, the least educated and other marginal groups.

2. Reusing Old Car Tires to Establish Children’s Playground in Um Nasser Village in the North of Bait Lahia Town in North of Gaza, Palestine.

Figure 2.1. Children playing on the playground made of old tires, Palestine
Figure 2.1. Children playing on the playground made of old tires, Palestine
The NGO Benevolent Community Center Association/Bait Lahia in the Gaza district of Palestine, received support from the GEF SGP for a project to recover and reuse old tires that would likely otherwise be burnt and release unintentional POPs to the environment.

This project, still under execution, is a joint Climate Change and POPs demonstration project to minimize environmental damage caused by burning old car tires. It demonstrates how to use these tires to establish a children’s playground in Um Nasser village in the north of Bait Lahia, a town in the north of Gaza near the border with Israel. The project will establish a 100 square meter children’s playground in Um Nasser village. It equipped the playground with play facilities constructed from old tires and will also landscape the park and plant trees.

The project is conducting community awareness activities through meetings, a tire collection campaign, and the distribution of brochures. The campaign will promote environmental-friendly reuse of used tires. In addition to reducing emissions from unintentionally produced POPs such as dioxins and furans, this campaign is reducing releases of greenhouse gases, and other contaminants such as lead oxide, zinc cadmium, N2, HCL and SO2, which cause harm to human health, contribute to global warming, and pollute international ground water.

Project Assessment

This project’s success in supporting the two GEF focal areas of Climate Change and POPs is commendable. Such innovation can positively impact other communities to simultaneously address multiple environmental challenges with creative and cost-effective strategies and innovations. This project also demonstrates the ability of communities to work together and to positively impact the lives of children as well. Information about the project’s success is being shared across GEF SGP’s worldwide network.

This project successfully contributes to implementation of Stockholm Convention Article 5: measures to reduce of eliminate POPs releases from unintentional sources (open burning of tires is a source of POPs listed in Annex C Part III) and Article 10: public information, awareness and education.

The project meets OP14 expected outcomes including: the strengthening of the institutional and human resource capacity for the management of POPs and developing safe and cost-effective alternatives to POPs. The project also achieves other important outcomes including an increase in information, public awareness, knowledge and capacity on POPs; contribution to the reduction and elimination of POPs releases from unintentional production; involvement of women, children, the least educated and other marginal groups; synergies with other GEF focal areas.; and other creative strategies which local communities, NGOS and CBOs employed to reduce and eliminate POPs and to contribute to effective Stockholm Convention implementation.

3. Medical Waste Management, Romania

Figure 3.1.  Medical waste discarded before the project, Romania
Figure 3.1. Medical waste discarded before the project, Romania
This is a pilot project aiming at establishing a best practice on reducing POPs emissions generated from medical wastes incineration. All project activities are in close connection with aspects such as: reducing, reusing and recycling of medical, municipal and industrial wastes; demonstrating community-based approaches to POPs reduction
Figure 3.2. Medical waste management practiced, Romania
Figure 3.2. Medical waste management practiced, Romania
and elimination such as alternative products, processes and practices, and POPs outreach, capacity building among communities and NGOs, and awareness raising.

The project developed a medical waste incineration plan, and implemented the plan in the Pneumo-phtisiology Hospital Constanta, including demonstration of the proposed method. Activities also included the development and dissemination of information and capacity building concerning medical waste management, including elimination of the medical waste, with a focus on reduction and elimination of POPs in compliance with the Stockholm Convention and the Romanian National Implementation Plan.

PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT

4. Re-packing of Obsolete Pesticides in Borisovskiy District of Minsk Region, Belarus

Figure 4.1. Unsafe storage of obsolete pesticides, Belarus
Figure 4.1. Unsafe storage of obsolete pesticides, Belarus
The NGO Ekosfera in the Republic of Belarus, received support from the GEF SGP for a project to re-package obsolete pesticides in the Borisovskiy District of Minsk Region. Project activities included an inventory of obsolete pesticide stockpiles in the Borisovskiy district. The project identified a warehouse and repaired it. It repackaged approximately 200 tonnes of obsolete pesticides for safe storage. It also undertook soil cleanup in and around the warehouse. Aspects of the project included demonstration, capacity building, networking and policy dialogue. Awareness activities also included producing information materials including brochures and posters as well as an information seminar.

Project Assessment

Figure 4.2. Repacked pesticides, Belarus
Figure 4.2. Repacked pesticides, Belarus
Ekosfera’s project helped to successfully identify stockpiles of obsolete pesticides and safely store them, thereby reducing exposure of pesticides to communities and the environment. Environmental remediation of pesticide contamination also reduced POPS pesticide exposure. The dissemination of educational materials about the pesticides additionally led to an increase in awareness of the danger posed by obsolete pesticides. It is important to note that due to limited scientific and technical capacity of the small NGO, the project was not able to identify which particular POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention were actually contained in the obsolete pesticide. Where the threat to the community is serious and the capacity to identify the specific POPs is low, SGP-Belarus took a “precautionary approach” to act on the large quantity of obsolete pesticide and achieved great success in reducing direct impact on the health of local people. The project assumed that the mixed obsolete pesticides contained unknown quantity of the POPs listed under the Stockholm Convention.

On the assumption that POPs were present in the stockpiles, the project successfully contributed to implementation of Stockholm Convention Article 6: measures to reduce and eliminate releases of POPs from stockpiles and wastes and Article 10: public information, awareness and education about POPs.

The project met the following OP14 expected outcomes: strengthening institutional and human resource capacity for the management of POPs; strengthening policy and regulatory frameworks to facilitate environmentally sound management of POPs and other chemicals, and achieving environmentally safe management, storage and disposal of POPs stockpiles and wastes. It also contributed to the reduction and elimination of POPs releases from stockpiles and wastes, increased information, public awareness, knowledge and capacity on POPs and furthered information exchange about POPs.

5. Community-based Integrated Pest Management, Pakistan

Figure 5.1. Community people are trained on IPM, Pakistan
Figure 5.1. Community people are trained on IPM, Pakistan

This project, conducted by NGOs including Eco-conservation Initiatives (ECI) and Human Development Foundation (HDF), DevCon and supported by a grant from the SGP, devised a mechanism to minimize the use of POPS pesticides in Pakistan and encourage alternatives. Pakistan is very fertile for cotton crops and cotton crops have been the mainstay of Punjab and Sindh for centuries. Extensive cotton farming since 1970 raised the problem of pests, leading to an indiscriminate use of pesticides in type and amount, with DDT and Heptachlor still in use in Pakistan. POPs pesticide use has led to contamination of air, soil and water in the region.

Figure 5.2. POPs free cotton farming, Pakistan
Figure 5.2. POPs free cotton farming, Pakistan

To address the problem, a community-based integrated pest management (IPM) project was initiated in 2005 to introduce alternative methods to control pests without using POPs pesticides. The main strategy of the project was to control pests using their natural enemies. Main project activities included establishment of insectaries for monitoring, pest scouting, pest identification, mass rearing and conservation of farmer friendly insects, including Chrysoperla carnea, Trichogramma chilonis and Coccinelids. On-the-farm demonstration sites were established to test and demonstrate environment-friendly techniques of IPM. To ensure project sustainability, the project built institutional capacity by establishing a Farmer Field School and a training module for replication of the IPM approaches by other communities.

As a result of the project activities, the use of POPs pesticides use in cotton-growing has been minimized. Local communities have enhanced their knowledge and understanding of the impact of POPs pesticides and have increased their capacity in carrying out alternative methods to control pesticides. Sound research and project design, on-the-ground demonstration, awareness-raising, institutional partnerships and multi- stakeholder involvement were key to the success of the project.

Project Assessment:
This project successfully contributed to implementation of Stockholm Convention Article 3: measures to reduce or eliminate releases from intentional production and use of POPs, including POPS pesticides and industrial chemicals; and Article 10: Public information, awareness and education bout POPs.

The project met the OP14 expected outcomes of: the strengthening of the institutional and human resource capacity for the management of POPs; reduction of the use of POPS for vector control, termite control and agriculture; and development of safe and effective alternatives to POP.

SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

6. Integrated Agricultural Waste Management, Macedonia

Figure 6.1. Vegetable Farm in Strumica, Macedonia
Figure 6.1. Vegetable Farm in Strumica, Macedonia

Strumica region in Macedonia is a well established production base for spring-summer vegetables with more than 50% produced under plastic foils (low-high to ground-level plastic green house gardens). These plastic foils have a life span of 1-3 years which are then burnt on the spot thus releasing POPs in the air. The project aims to reduce POPs --- by assisting in the collection, selection and buyout of used (wasted) plastic foil from the farmers, preventing its burning – thus preventing the release of POPs in two villages, Kuklis and Prosenikovo (in the Strumica city region). At the same time it influences possibilities for healthier environment, economic benefit and local self development.

Figure 6.2. Collection of Agricultural Plastic Waste, Macedonia
Figure 6.2. Collection of Agricultural Plastic Waste, Macedonia

The project contributed directly to the reduction of the POPs emissions by reducing the burning of the waste plastic foil and reducing the burning of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles. According past practice it is estimated that 50%-75% of the PET plastic bottles from the urban areas are dumped on the landfills. Due to the self-ignition on the landfills the plastics and other combustible trash is set on fire releasing POPs and various air pollutants respectively. Through the implementation of this project, 7,000 tons of waste plastic foil collected instead being burnt releasing POPs. 2,850 tons of PET plastic bottles collected of which at least 50% would have been burnt releasing POPs.

Project Assessment

This project promotes practices of agricultural waste management to prevent unintentional production of POPs through the burning of plastics waste generated from agricultural activities. This project successfully contributed to implementation of Stockholm Convention Article 5: measures to reduce releases from unintentional POPs. Furthermore, this project enhances local communities’ livelihood through the recycling of the plastics waste. The project’s experiences and practices are being considered by other international donors, such as the USAID to replicate and upscale.

7. Organic Farming Standard for Sustainable Agricultural System, Thailand

Figure 7.1. Chemical free soy bean field, Chiangmai, Thailand
Figure 7.1. Chemical free soy bean field, Chiangmai, Thailand
This project aims to reduce POPs by demonstrating community actions in avoidance of application of chemical substance and promotion of organic farming and its product in Chiangmai and adjacent provinces. The project was awarded US$ 36,890.00 from GEF SGP with two-year duration, the project has been in operation for more than half way.

The majority of the community in the Baan (village) Donjiang, Tambol San Pa Tung , Mae Taeng District earn their living by growing paddy, soybean and vegetables. During previous decades, chemical substances in pesticide and fertilizer form were used intensively. It is thought that many of these substances may have contained POPs. Nearly all community members were used to using the pesticides and chemicals that have since been banned by the Stockholm Convention. Now, however, 28 of 170 families in the village call themselves organic farmers and several of them have acquired organic farming certifications.

Experiences of this project have been shared with staff members with the Agricultural Product Research of Switzerland and the National Office of Food and Agricultural Products Standards. This is generating greater awareness of project activities and will likely enhance co-financing opportunities for future project activities.

Project Assessment
This project is still ongoing, but initial results have been generated. It contributes to the implementation of the Stockholm Convention by introducing alternative farming practices to local communities. This not only promotes the non-use of chemicals in the communities, but also economic returns. This project however does not demonstrate which specific POPs pesticides have been avoided.

AWARENESS RAISING & CAPACITY BUILDING

8. Implementation of Stockholm Convention at Grassroots Level, Tanzania

Figure 8.1. Stocks of DDT powder at Old Korogwe, Tanzania
Figure 8.1. Stocks of DDT powder at Old Korogwe, Tanzania
The main objective of the project was to build capacity of grassroots farmers and peasants in Tanzania to effectively implement the Stockholm Convention and other Chemical Conventions. The project focuses on major agricultural zones, the Southern zone (Iringa and Ruvuma); Western Zone (Tabora, Kagera and Kigoma); and Northern Zone (Kilimanjaro, and Tanga). These regions are among the big chemicals and pesticides users in Tanzania.

The project conducted training for CBOs/CSOs (community based organizations) on POPs and their impacts, particularly in communities where there has been use of DDT in farming. The training focused on how to monitor and report on whether the DDT used is done in conformance with WHO guidelines. The project educated the communities on safer approaches that do not reply on DDT such as Integrated Vector Control (IVM) that control vector and do not rely on DDT.

Figure 8.2. Aldrin Tanks at Arusha Seed Farm, Tanzania
Figure 8.2. Aldrin Tanks at Arusha Seed Farm, Tanzania
As a result of the project, three pilot integrated pesticide management projects were developed. The project developed training materials, conducted training for 45 CBOs, and developed three TV programmes and three radio programmes for awareness-raising about the project sites. The project has significantly enhanced awareness among communities and NGOs’

Project Assessment

The project supports Article 10 of the Stockholm Convention, having provided educational information and training to communities. Project activities are facilitating implementation of the article by raising awareness and provide alternatives that will reduce the use of POPs pesticides.

Article 11 of the Stockholm Convention encourages undertakings of appropriate research, development and monitoring pertaining to POPs, their alternatives and other POPs candidates. Article 8, paragraph 6 and 7 states that observers are invited to make technical comments on the risks profile and provide information on social and economic considerations on new POPs. Activities are being conducted that will achieve the anticipated goals of the article 8 and 11.

As a result, the project has developed training materials, conducted training for 45 CSOs/CBOs/ Extension staff and created public awareness on the conventions through TV and radio programmes. The project has also enhanced community awareness on POPs through the aforesaid media tools.

For More Projects/Cases
The case studies outlined above are just a few of many examples of how NGOs and communities are contributing to Stockholm Convention implementation and achieving measurable results. These and other projects are creating foundations for current and future POPs reduction and elimination and through replication and they are collectively contributing to reducing POPs in the global environment.

More information on the project examples above and more case studies and NGO and CBO-initiated POPs projects can be found at:

SGP POPs page: http://sgp.undp.org/index.cfm?module=Projects&page=AdvancedSearch

IPEP Website: http://www.ipen.org/ipepweb1/index.html
 
User: Pass:
!You are currently not logged in. Logged in users will receive an official certificate after completing the module. Register here

VI Review Quiz:

  1. How did the NGO "Benevolent Community Center Association" in Palestine develop a successful local POPs reduction and elimination project?
    1.   By recovering materials before they were incinerated
    2.   By developing safe and cost-effective alternatives to POPs
    3.   By involving marginalized groups
    4.   By achieving the OP14 expected outcome of increasing information, public awareness and knowledge
    5.   All of the above
  2. Which case studies are examples of local projects that have supported Article 5 of the Stockholm Convention (measures to reduce or eliminate POPs releases from unintentional sources: dioxins, furans, PCBs and HCB):
    1.   Community-based integrated pest management, Pakistan
    2.   Successfully transforming a domestic solid waste dump into a garden and community space, Guantanamo, Cuba
    3.   Implementation of Stockholm Convention at Grassroots level, Tanzania
    4.   a and b
  3. What are the key elements for the success of the Pakistan‘s Community-based IPM project?
    1.   Integrated project design;
    2.   Multiple stakeholders‘ involvement;
    3.   Reduced international demand for POPs contaminated cotton products;
    4.   a and b
    5.   a, b, and c
Home
Contributors
 Chapter 1: ‘The Dirty Dozen’ and their Characteristics
 Chapter 2: Sources and Uses of POPs
 Chapter 3: Impacts of POPs on Health and Environment
 Chapter 4: Global Institutions and Policies to Reduce and Eliminate POPs
 Chapter 5: Harnessing the Power of NGOs and Communities
 Chapter 6: Case Studies: Local Actions; Global Results
 Chapter 7: Opportunity for National Coordinators and National Steering Committees to Facilitate Results in POPs Focal Area
 Final Quiz: POPs Awareness Self-Test
Quick Reference and Additional Information